Integration and Implementation sciences


Integration and Implementation Sciences (i2S): Improving research impact on complex real-world problems.


i2S provides:


i2S as a New Discipline

i2S is a new discipline providing concepts and methods for conducting research on complex, real-world problems. It supports researchers (i2S specialists) who contribute to cross-disciplinary teams tackling challenging social and environmental problems, by enhancing

  1. Synthesis of disciplinary and stakeholder knowledge,
  2. Understanding and management of diverse unknowns, and
  3. Provision of integrated research support for policy and practice change.

i2S is an intellectual hub which provides:

  1. a home for compiling and further developing relevant concepts and methods, as well as case examples which illustrate their use,
  2. a conduit for transmitting these between teams working on different problems,
  3. a forum for evaluating quality and raising standards, and
  4. education at a range of levels.

i2S projects aim to: 

  • refine the conceptualisation of Integration and Implementation Sciences (i2S)
  • gather and organise concepts and methods for application by i2S specialists
  • bring together different disciplinary and practitioner perspectives on unknowns and on change
  • build bridges between related approaches, such as interdisciplinarity, transdisciplinarity, systemic intervention, action research, complex systems science, implementation science, participatory system dynamics etc
  • foster networks and alliances to increase the influence of i2S and its component approaches on research funding, as well as research and education policy.

The ideas underpinning I2S are described in the following paper and book:




Research support officer


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  • Bammer G, ‘Enhancing research collaboration: Three key management challenges’ Research Policy, 2008;37, 875-887.
  • Bammer G. and M. Smithson (eds)  Uncertainty and Risk: Multidisciplinary Perspectives, London: Earthscan,2008  382pp. Paperback released in July 2009.
  • McDonald D., Bammer, G., Deane P. Research Integration Using Dialogue Methods, ANU Press; 2009;
  • Bammer G. (ed)  Dealing with uncertainties in policing serious crime, ANU E-Press, 2010;
  • Bammer G., with Michaux, A, and A. Sanson (eds)  Bridging the ‘know-do’ gap: Knowledge brokering to improve child wellbeing. ANU E-Press 2010;
  • Bammer G. Disciplining Interdisciplinarity: Integration and Implementation Sciences for Researching Complex Real-World Problems. ANU Press, 2013;
  • Bammer G. (ed) Change! Combining analytic approaches with street wisdom. ANU Press, 2015;
  • Bammer G. ‘What constitutes appropriate peer review for interdisciplinary research?’ Palgrave Communications,2016; 2 (16017), doi:10.1057/palcomms.2016.17.